Python3中urllib使用方法(header,代理,超时,认证,异常处理)

  • baagee 发布于 2017-04-02 15:33:31
  • 分类:Python
  • 3599 人围观
  • 4 人喜欢

urllib是python的一个获取url(Uniform Resource Locators,统一资源定址器),我们可以利用它来抓取远程的数据进行保存,下面整理了一些关于urllib使用中的一些关于header,代理,超时,认证,异常处理处理方法,下面一起来看看。

python3 抓取网页资源的 N 种方法

1、最简单

import urllib.request
response = urllib.request.urlopen('http://python.org/')
html = response.read()

2、使用 Request

import urllib.request
req = urllib.request.Request('http://python.org/')
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()

3、发送数据

import urllib.parse
import urllib.request
url = 'http://localhost/login.php'
user_agent = 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/55.0.2883.87 Safari/537.36'
values = {
	'act' : 'login',
	'login[email]' : 'yzhang@i9i8.com',
	'login[password]' : '123456'
}
data = urllib.parse.urlencode(values)
req = urllib.request.Request(url, data)
req.add_header('Referer', 'http://www.python.org/')
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()
print(the_page.decode("utf8"))

4、发送数据和header

import urllib.parse
import urllib.request
url = 'http://localhost/login.php'
user_agent = 'Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/55.0.2883.87 Safari/537.36'
values = {
	'act' : 'login',
	'login[email]' : 'yzhang@i9i8.com',
	'login[password]' : '123456'
}
headers = { 'User-Agent' : user_agent }
data = urllib.parse.urlencode(values)
req = urllib.request.Request(url, data, headers)
response = urllib.request.urlopen(req)
the_page = response.read()
print(the_page.decode("utf8"))

5、http 错误

import urllib.request
req = urllib.request.Request('http://www.SCVHJK435678ug.net')
try:
	urllib.request.urlopen(req)
except urllib.error.HTTPError as e:
	print(e.code)
	print(e.read().decode("utf8"))

6、异常处理1

from urllib.request import Request, urlopen
from urllib.error import URLError, HTTPError
req = Request("http://www.SCVHJK435678ug.net /")
try:
	response = urlopen(req)
except HTTPError as e:
	print('The server couldn't fulfill the request.')
	print('Error code: ', e.code)
except URLError as e:
	print('We failed to reach a server.')
	print('Reason: ', e.reason)
else:
	print("good!")
	print(response.read().decode("utf8"))

7、异常处理2

from urllib.request import Request, urlopen
from urllib.error import  URLError
req = Request("http://www.SCVHJK435678ug.net /")
try:
	response = urlopen(req)
except URLError as e:
	if hasattr(e, 'reason'):
		print('We failed to reach a server.')
		print('Reason: ', e.reason)
	elif hasattr(e, 'code'):
		print('The server couldn't fulfill the request.')
		print('Error code: ', e.code)
else:
	print("good!")
	print(response.read().decode("utf8"))

8、HTTP 认证

import urllib.request
# create a password manager
password_mgr = urllib.request.HTTPPasswordMgrWithDefaultRealm()
# Add the username and password.
# If we knew the realm, we could use it instead of None.
top_level_url = "https://www.SCVHJK435678ug.net /"
password_mgr.add_password(None, top_level_url, 'rekfan', 'xxxxxx')
handler = urllib.request.HTTPBasicAuthHandler(password_mgr)
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(handler)
a_url = "https://www.SCVHJK435678ug.net /"
x = opener.open(a_url)
print(x.read())
# Install the opener.
# Now all calls to urllib.request.urlopen use our opener.
urllib.request.install_opener(opener)
a = urllib.request.urlopen(a_url).read().decode('utf8')
print(a)

9、使用代理

import urllib.request
proxy_support = urllib.request.ProxyHandler({'http': '134.23.13.56:1080'})
opener = urllib.request.build_opener(proxy_support)
urllib.request.install_opener(opener)
a = urllib.request.urlopen("http://www.SCVHJK435678ug.net").read().decode("utf8")
print(a)

10、超时

import socket
import urllib.request
timeout = 10
socket.setdefaulttimeout(timeout)
# request=urllib.request.urlopen(url,params,timeout=10)
req = urllib.request.Request('http://www.SCVHJK435678ug.net/')
a = urllib.request.urlopen(req).read()
print(a)


标签: python urllib

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